Gelation, flocculation, and burn on are common if protein performance is not maximized. Plant-based proteins are not as soluble as dairy proteins and can easily precipitate if not correctly buffered and protected from certain minerals.
Understanding processing parameters is paramount for protein stability success, as they have high influence on protein properties. Heat treatment (Pasteurization, UHT), Retorted dairy products undergo extreme temperatures and pressure with little agitation during processing. This is very stressful on the proteins and if the product is not formulated correctly, there will be protein agglomeration and precipitation. Overuse of phosphate salts can also lead to crystal formation due to solubility levels being surpassed.